Stem Cells – repairing heart attack damage Watch Video
The eastern newt looks unremarkable but it possesses some remarkable qualities for example if the new two loses a leg it simply grows another one not many animals can do that that’s why professor Thomas Brown of the Max Planck Institute for heart and lung research in Bad Nauheim .
Is so interested in the Newt then why’s Knut can regenerate various different types of tissue very efficiently mechanism and we are trying to understand these mechanisms and then to make use of them in mammals and in humans. Not something the nude special skills even protected during a heart attack scientists can use magnetic resonance imaging MRI to observe how the newts heart recovers during a heart attack part of the heart is no longer properly supplied with blood the cells of the heart muscle do not receive enough oxygen. Scar tissue is formed and cannot contract in the same way as a muscle but in the newt the scar tissue is turned back into functioning muscle cells again the MRI shows that just a few weeks after the heart attack the newts heart is beating at full strength again
Thomas Brown and his staff want to know why nudes can do this but humans can’t in humans once a scar has formed in the heart muscle .We initially have a very static situation and nothing changes the Newt is more dynamic it repairs these defects absorbs the scars and can regenerate tissue. That is fully functional fortunately there’s no doubt that this is a fascinating subject sustained on force in the elders in some cells of a damaged newt heart we can recognize condensed chromosomes. Meaning that these cells are dividing only immature cells can do this clearly then specialized heart cells develop back into immature cells .They differentiate and later they develop back into striated heart muscle cells again we can imagine .It like this these are stem cells they are the babies among the cells they can develop into virtually all types of cell with different functions .In the body for example as immune cells they can fight off Jones as nerve cells they can process information or as heart muscle cells they can pump blood through the body on its way from a baby cell to an adult cell .The cell goes through an intermediate state it’s young and largely undifferentiated with training and time it will mature and it will become a powerful heart muscle cell .Then it will need a lot of oxygen but that is what is lacking during a heart attack in humans this is what causes the heart cells to die.
The newts trick is that it can rejuvenate it’s heart muscle cells to do this the cell will have to undo virtually everything that happened during the ripening process the cell dismantles its supporting skeleton and all the elements which allowed it to beat and it stops working .It’s now a D differentiated precursor cell they need less oxygen and mature heart muscle cells and can therefore survive better if there is a shortage of oxygen. In an American colleague once said rewinding winding back a program so that cells are put into the situation of reacting in the same way as young embryonic cells .Could this trick also work for humans and if so can scientists wind back the cell program and indeed the scientists discovered in humans. Too after a heart attack mature heart muscle cells are rejuvenated and become youthful precursor cells however far too few muscle cells become precursor cells .Again there are not enough to carry out the repair so scientists want to know whether it is also possible for humans to transform more muscle cells into precursor cells .So that they can avoid being suffocated there examining how the heart regenerates in mice like the newt newborn mice can completely reconstruct their hearts. older creatures however can no longer do that because the heart muscle cells can only deed .
If ur nc8 during the first week of life scientists think that newborn mice possess a signal substance for this d differentiation which they no longer have later when they’re older .They want to find this signal substance isn’t like us we are certainly in a position to carry out tests of that kind with hundreds or even thousands of different substances .Which we add to isolate itself and then analyze the effects of these substances on morphological criteria and on behavior changes. In the cells in the culture and echo to our analogy one observation helps the scientists during a heart attack the body’s immune cells hear stained green are alerted .do they have something to do with the start of the rejuvenation process? The research team tested hundreds of substances produced by the immune cells one candidate ultimately seemed particularly promising on coasts. At in EM a protein produced by white blood cells if you add panco stat into mature heart cells they D differentiate and heart muscle cells become precursor cells once more and indeed .If adult mice are given unko statin em immediately after a heart attack more heart cells than usual will survive through the D differentiation – precursor cells. The MRI scan shows the heart functioning properly again however in humans unko statin M increases the risk of blood clots which can be dangerous especially for patients after a heart attack. Nonetheless the scientists results from Bad Nauheim give us the hope that even in the human heart the potential for regeneration can be stimulated once at least basically .The past few years have shown that regenerative medicine offers enormous potential and that this is still at the very beginning of its usefulness and so I’m cautiously optimistic that in the next few years we shall see considerable progress but as in vana this creature has not yet revealed all its secrets but one day maybe many people will owe their lives to the newt.